Dracut Options

dracut.cmdline – dracut kernel command line options

DESCRIPTION

       The root device used by the kernel is specified in the boot
configuration file on the kernel command line, as always.


The traditional root=/dev/sda1 style device specification is allowed, but not encouraged. The root device should better be identified by LABEL or UUID. If a label is used, as in root=LABEL=<label_of_root> the initramfs will search all available devices for a filesystem with the appropriate label, and mount that device as the root filesystem. root=UUID=<uuidnumber> will mount the partition with that UUID as the root filesystem.

In the following all kernel command line parameters, which are processed by dracut, are described.

"rd.*" parameters mentioned without "=" are boolean parameters. They can be turned on/off by setting them to {0|1}. If the assignment with "=" is missing "=1" is implied. For example rd.info can be turned off with rd.info=0 or turned on with rd.info=1 or rd.info. The last value in the kernel command line is the value, which is honored. Standard init=<path to real init> specify the path to the init programm to be started after the initramfs has finished root=<path to blockdevice> specify the block device to use as the root filesystem. Example. root=/dev/sda1 root=/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:00:1f.1-scsi-0:0:1:0-part1 root=/dev/disk/by-label/Root root=LABEL=Root root=/dev/disk/by-uuid/3f5ad593-4546-4a94-a374-bcfb68aa11f7 root=UUID=3f5ad593-4546-4a94-a374-bcfb68aa11f7 root=PARTUUID=3f5ad593-4546-4a94-a374-bcfb68aa11f7

rootfstype=<filesystem type> "auto" if not specified.

Example.

rootfstype=ext3

rootflags=<mount options> specify additional mount options for the root filesystem. If not set, /etc/fstab of the real root will be parsed for special mount options and mounted accordingly.

ro force mounting / and /usr (if it is a separate device) read-only. If none of ro and rw is present, both are mounted according to /etc/fstab.

rw force mounting / and /usr (if it is a separate device) read-write. See also ro option.

rootfallback=<path to blockdevice> specify the block device to use as the root filesystem, if the normal root cannot be found. This can only be a simple block device with a simple file system, for which the filesystem driver is either compiled in, or added manually to the initramfs. This parameter can be specified multiple times.

rd.auto rd.auto=1 enable autoassembly of special devices like cryptoLUKS, dmraid, mdraid or lvm. Default is off as of dracut version >= 024.

rd.hostonly=0 removes all compiled in configuration of the host system the initramfs image was built on. This helps booting, if any disk layout changed, especially in combination with rd.auto or other parameters specifying the layout.

rd.cmdline=ask prompts the user for additional kernel command line parameters

rd.fstab=0 do not honor special mount options for the root filesystem found in /etc/fstab of the real root.

resume=<path to resume partition> resume from a swap partition

Example.

resume=/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:00:1f.1-scsi-0:0:1:0-part1 resume=/dev/disk/by-uuid/3f5ad593-4546-4a94-a374-bcfb68aa11f7 resume=UUID=3f5ad593-4546-4a94-a374-bcfb68aa11f7

rd.skipfsck skip fsck for rootfs and /usr. If you’re mounting /usr read-only and the init system performs fsck before remount, you might want to use this option to avoid duplication.

iso-scan/filename Using iso-scan/filename with a Fedora/Red Hat/CentOS Live iso should just work by copying the original kernel cmdline parameters.

Example.

menuentry 'Live Fedora 20' --class fedora --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os { set isolabel=Fedora-Live-LXDE-x86_64-20-1 set isofile="/boot/iso/Fedora-Live-LXDE-x86_64-20-1.iso" loopback loop $isofile linux (loop)/isolinux/vmlinuz0 boot=isolinux iso-scan/filename=$isofile root=live:LABEL=$isolabel ro rd.live.image quiet rhgb initrd (loop)/isolinux/initrd0.img }

Misc rd.driver.blacklist=<drivername>[1] do not load kernel module <drivername>. This parameter can be specified multiple times.

rd.driver.pre=<drivername>[2] force loading kernel module <drivername>. This parameter can be specified multiple times.

rd.driver.post=<drivername>[3] force loading kernel module <drivername> after all automatic loading modules have been loaded. This parameter can be specified multiple times.

rd.retry=<seconds> specify how long dracut should retry the initqueue to configure devices. The default is 30 seconds. After 2/3 of the time, degraded raids are force started. If you have hardware, which takes a very long time to announce its drives, you might want to extend this value.

rd.timeout=<seconds> specify how long dracut should wait for devices to appear. The default is 0, which means forever. Note that this timeout should be longer than rd.retry to allow for proper configuration.

rd.noverifyssl accept self-signed certificates for ssl downloads.

rd.ctty=<terminal device> specify the controlling terminal for the console. This is useful, if you have multiple "console=" arguments.

Debug If you are dropped to an emergency shell, the file /run/initramfs/rdsosreport.txt is created, which can be saved to a (to be mounted by hand) partition (usually /boot) or a USB stick. Additional debugging info can be produced by adding rd.debug to the kernel command line. /run/initramfs/rdsosreport.txt contains all logs and the output of some tools. It should be attached to any report about dracut problems.

rd.info print informational output though "quiet" is set

rd.shell allow dropping to a shell, if root mounting fails

rd.debug set -x for the dracut shell. If systemd is active in the initramfs, all output is logged to the systemd journal, which you can inspect with "journalctl -ab". If systemd is not active, the logs are written to dmesg and /run/initramfs/init.log. If "quiet" is set, it also logs to the console.

rd.memdebug=[4] Print memory usage info at various points, set the verbose level from 0 to 3.

Higher level means more debugging output:

0 - no output 1 - partial /proc/meminfo 2 - /proc/meminfo 3 - /proc/meminfo + /proc/slabinfo

rd.break drop to a shell at the end

rd.break={cmdline|pre-udev|pre-trigger|initqueue|pre-mount|mount|pre-pivot|cleanup} drop to a shell on defined breakpoint

rd.udev.info set udev to loglevel info

rd.udev.debug set udev to loglevel debug

I18N rd.vconsole.keymap=<keymap base file name> keyboard translation table loaded by loadkeys; taken from keymaps directory; will be written as KEYMAP to /etc/vconsole.conf in the initramfs.

Example.

rd.vconsole.keymap=de-latin1-nodeadkeys

rd.vconsole.keymap.ext=<list of keymap base file names> list of extra keymaps to bo loaded (sep. by space); will be written as EXT_KEYMAP to /etc/vconsole.conf in the initramfs

rd.vconsole.unicode boolean, indicating UTF-8 mode; will be written as UNICODE to /etc/vconsole.conf in the initramfs

rd.vconsole.font=<font base file name> console font; taken from consolefonts directory; will be written as FONT to /etc/vconsole.conf in the initramfs.

Example.

rd.vconsole.font=LatArCyrHeb-16

rd.vconsole.font.map=<console map base file name> see description of -m parameter in setfont manual; taken from consoletrans directory; will be written as FONT_MAP to /etc/vconsole.conf in the initramfs

rd.vconsole.font.unimap=<unicode table base file name> see description of -u parameter in setfont manual; taken from unimaps directory; will be written as FONT_UNIMAP to /etc/vconsole.conf in the initramfs

rd.locale.LANG=<locale> taken from the environment; if no UNICODE is defined we set its value in basis of LANG value (whether it ends with ".utf8" (or similar) or not); will be written as LANG to /etc/locale.conf in the initramfs.

Example.

rd.locale.LANG=pl_PL.utf8

rd.locale.LC_ALL=<locale> taken from the environment; will be written as LC_ALL to /etc/locale.conf in the initramfs

LVM rd.lvm=0 disable LVM detection

rd.lvm.vg=<volume group name> only activate the volume groups with the given name. rd.lvm.vg can be specified multiple times on the kernel command line.

rd.lvm.lv=<logical volume name> only activate the logical volumes with the given name. rd.lvm.lv can be specified multiple times on the kernel command line.

rd.lvm.conf=0 remove any /etc/lvm/lvm.conf, which may exist in the initramfs

crypto LUKS rd.luks=0 disable crypto LUKS detection

rd.luks.uuid=<luks uuid> only activate the LUKS partitions with the given UUID. Any "luks-" of the LUKS UUID is removed before comparing to <luks uuid>. The comparisons also matches, if <luks uuid> is only the beginning of the LUKS UUID, so you don’t have to specify the full UUID. This parameter can be specified multiple times.

rd.luks.allow-discards=<luks uuid> Allow using of discards (TRIM) requests for LUKS partitions with the given UUID. Any "luks-" of the LUKS UUID is removed before comparing to <luks uuid>. The comparisons also matches, if <luks uuid> is only the beginning of the LUKS UUID, so you don’t have to specify the full UUID. This parameter can be specified multiple times.

rd.luks.allow-discards Allow using of discards (TRIM) requests on all LUKS partitions.

rd.luks.crypttab=0 do not check, if LUKS partition is in /etc/crypttab

crypto LUKS - key on removable device support rd.luks.key=<keypath>:<keydev>:<luksdev> keypath is a path to key file to look for. It’s REQUIRED. When keypath ends with .gpg it’s considered to be key encrypted symmetrically with GPG. You will be prompted for password on boot. GPG support comes with crypt-gpg module which needs to be added explicitly.

keydev is a device on which key file resides. It might be kernel name of devices (should start with "/dev/"), UUID (prefixed with "UUID=") or label (prefix with "LABEL="). You don’t have to specify full UUID. Just its beginning will suffice, even if its ambiguous. All matching devices will be probed. This parameter is recommended, but not required. If not present, all block devices will be probed, which may significantly increase boot time.

If luksdev is given, the specified key will only be applied for that LUKS device. Possible values are the same as for keydev. Unless you have several LUKS devices, you don’t have to specify this parameter. The simplest usage is:

Example.

rd.luks.key=/foo/bar.key

As you see, you can skip colons in such a case.

Note dracut pipes key to cryptsetup with -d - argument, therefore you need to pipe to crypsetup luksFormat with -d -, too!

Here follows example for key encrypted with GPG:

gpg --quiet --decrypt rootkey.gpg | \ cryptsetup -d - -v --cipher serpent-cbc-essiv:sha256 \ --key-size 256 luksFormat /dev/sda3

If you use plain keys, just add path to -d option:

cryptsetup -d rootkey.key -v --cipher serpent-cbc-essiv:sha256 \ --key-size 256 luksFormat /dev/sda3

MD RAID rd.md=0 disable MD RAID detection

rd.md.imsm=0 disable MD RAID for imsm/isw raids, use DM RAID instead

rd.md.ddf=0 disable MD RAID for SNIA ddf raids, use DM RAID instead

rd.md.conf=0 ignore mdadm.conf included in initramfs

rd.md.waitclean=1 wait for any resync, recovery, or reshape activity to finish before continuing

rd.md.uuid=<md raid uuid> only activate the raid sets with the given UUID. This parameter can be specified multiple times.

DM RAID rd.dm=0 disable DM RAID detection

rd.dm.uuid=<dm raid uuid> only activate the raid sets with the given UUID. This parameter can be specified multiple times.

MULTIPATH rd.multipath=0 disable multipath detection

FIPS rd.fips enable FIPS

boot=<boot device> specify the device, where /boot is located.

Example.

boot=/dev/sda1 boot=/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:00:1f.1-scsi-0:0:1:0-part1 boot=UUID=<uuid> boot=LABEL=<label>

rd.fips.skipkernel skip checksum check of the kernel image. Useful, if the kernel image is not in a separate boot partition.

Network Important It is recommended to either bind an interface to a MAC with the ifname argument, or to use the systemd-udevd predictable network interface names.

Predictable network interface device names based on:

· firmware/bios-provided index numbers for on-board devices

· firmware-provided pci-express hotplug slot index number

· physical/geographical location of the hardware

· the interface’s MAC address

See: http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames

Two character prefixes based on the type of interface:

en ethernet

wl wlan

ww wwan

Type of names:

o<index> on-board device index number

s<slot>[5][6] hotplug slot index number

x<MAC> MAC address

[7]p<bus>s<slot>[8][9] PCI geographical location

[10]p<bus>s<slot>[11][12][13][14][15] USB port number chain

All multi-function PCI devices will carry the [16] number in the device name, including the function 0 device.

When using PCI geography, The PCI domain is only prepended when it is not 0.

For USB devices the full chain of port numbers of hubs is composed. If the name gets longer than the maximum number of 15 characters, the name is not exported. The usual USB configuration == 1 and interface == 0 values are suppressed.

PCI ethernet card with firmware index "1"

· eno1

PCI ethernet card in hotplug slot with firmware index number

· ens1

PCI ethernet multi-function card with 2 ports

· enp2s0f0

· enp2s0f1

PCI wlan card

· wlp3s0

USB built-in 3G modem

· wwp0s29u1u4i6

USB Android phone

· enp0s29u1u2

ip={dhcp|on|any|dhcp6|auto6}

dhcp|on|any get ip from dhcp server from all interfaces. If root=dhcp, loop sequentially through all interfaces (eth0, eth1, ...) and use the first with a valid DHCP root-path.

auto6 IPv6 autoconfiguration

dhcp6 IPv6 DHCP

ip=<interface>:{dhcp|on|any|dhcp6|auto6}[17][18]] This parameter can be specified multiple times.

dhcp|on|any|dhcp6 get ip from dhcp server on a specific interface

auto6 do IPv6 autoconfiguration

<macaddr> optionally set <macaddr> on the <interface>. This cannot be used in conjunction with the ifname argument for the same <interface>.

ip=<client-IP>:[19]:<gateway-IP>:<netmask>:<client_hostname>:<interface>:{none|off|dhcp|on|any|dhcp6|auto6|ibft}[20][21]] explicit network configuration. If you want do define a IPv6 address, put it in brackets (e.g. [22]). This parameter can be specified multiple times. <peer> is optional and is the address of the remote endpoint for pointopoint interfaces and it may be followed by a slash and a decimal number, encoding the network prefix length.

<macaddr> optionally set <macaddr> on the <interface>. This cannot be used in conjunction with the ifname argument for the same <interface>.

ip=<client-IP>:[23]:<gateway-IP>:<netmask>:<client_hostname>:<interface>:{none|off|dhcp|on|any|dhcp6|auto6|ibft}[24][25]] explicit network configuration. If you want do define a IPv6 address, put it in brackets (e.g. [26]). This parameter can be specified multiple times. <peer> is optional and is the address of the remote endpoint for pointopoint interfaces and it may be followed by a slash and a decimal number, encoding the network prefix length.

ifname=<interface>:<MAC> Assign network device name <interface> (ie "bootnet") to the NIC with MAC <MAC>.

Warning Do not use the default kernel naming scheme for the interface name, as it can conflict with the kernel names. So, don’t use "eth[27]+" for the interface name. Better name it "bootnet" or "bluesocket".

rd.route=<net>/<netmask>:<gateway>[28] Add a static route with route options, which are separated by a colon. IPv6 addresses have to be put in brackets.

Example.

rd.route=192.168.200.0/24:192.168.100.222:ens10 rd.route=192.168.200.0/24:192.168.100.222 rd.route=192.168.200.0/24::ens10 rd.route=[29]:[30]:ens10

bootdev=<interface> specify network interface to use routing and netroot information from. Required if multiple ip= lines are used.

BOOTIF=<MAC> specify network interface to use routing and netroot information from.

rd.bootif=0 Disable BOOTIF parsing, which is provided by PXE

nameserver=<IP> ... specify nameserver(s) to use

rd.peerdns=0 Disable DNS setting of DHCP parameters.

biosdevname=0 boolean, turn off biosdevname network interface renaming

rd.neednet=1 boolean, bring up network even without netroot set

vlan=<vlanname>:<phydevice> Setup vlan device named <vlanname> on <phydeivce>. We support the four styles of vlan names: VLAN_PLUS_VID (vlan0005), VLAN_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD (vlan5), DEV_PLUS_VID (eth0.0005), DEV_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD (eth0.5)

bond=<bondname>[31]] Setup bonding device <bondname> on top of <bondslaves>. <bondslaves> is a comma-separated list of physical (ethernet) interfaces. <options> is a comma-separated list on bonding options (modinfo bonding for details) in format compatible with initscripts. If <options> includes multi-valued arp_ip_target option, then its values should be separated by semicolon. Bond without parameters assumes bond=bond0:eth0,eth1:mode=balance-rr

team=<teammaster>:<teamslaves> Setup team device <teammaster> on top of <teamslaves>. <teamslaves> is a comma-separated list of physical (ethernet) interfaces.

bridge=<bridgename>:<ethnames> Setup bridge <bridgename> with <ethnames>. <ethnames> is a comma-separated list of physical (ethernet) interfaces. Bridge without parameters assumes bridge=br0:eth0

NFS root=[32]<root-dir>[33] mount nfs share from <server-ip>:/<root-dir>, if no server-ip is given, use dhcp next_server. If server-ip is an IPv6 address it has to be put in brackets, e.g. [34]. NFS options can be appended with the prefix ":" or "," and are seperated by ",".

root=nfs:[35]<root-dir>[36], root=nfs4:[37]<root-dir>[38], root={dhcp|dhcp6} root=dhcp alone directs initrd to look at the DHCP root-path where NFS options can be specified.

Example.

root-path=<server-ip>:<root-dir>[39] root-path=nfs:<server-ip>:<root-dir>[40] root-path=nfs4:<server-ip>:<root-dir>[41]

root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=[42]<root-dir>[43] Deprecated! kernel Documentation_/filesystems/nfsroot.txt_ defines this method. This is supported by dracut, but not recommended.

rd.nfs.domain=<NFSv4 domain name> Set the NFSv4 domain name. Will overwrite the settings in /etc/idmap.conf.

rd.net.dhcp.retry=<cnt> If this option is set, dracut will try to connect via dhcp <cnt> times before failing. Default is 1.

rd.net.timeout.dhcp=<arg> If this option is set, dhclient is called with "-timeout <arg>".

rd.net.timeout.iflink=<seconds> Wait <seconds> until link shows up. Default is 60 seconds.

rd.net.timeout.ifup=<seconds> Wait <seconds> until link has state "UP". Default is 20 seconds.

rd.net.timeout.route=<seconds> Wait <seconds> until route shows up. Default is 20 seconds.

rd.net.timeout.ipv6dad=<seconds> Wait <seconds> until IPv6 DAD is finished. Default is 50 seconds.

rd.net.timeout.ipv6auto=<seconds> Wait <seconds> until IPv6 automatic addresses are assigned. Default is 40 seconds.

rd.net.timeout.carrier=<seconds> Wait <seconds> until carrier is recognized. Default is 5 seconds.

CIFS root=cifs://[44]@]<server-ip>:<root-dir> mount cifs share from <server-ip>:/<root-dir>, if no server-ip is given, use dhcp next_server. if server-ip is an IPv6 address it has to be put in brackets, e.g. [45]. If a username or password are not specified as part of the root, then they must be passed on the command line through cifsuser/cifspass.

Warning Passwords specified on the kernel command line are visible for all users via the file /proc/cmdline and via dmesg or can be sniffed on the network, when using DHCP with DHCP root-path.

cifsuser=<username> Set the cifs username, if not specified as part of the root.

cifspass=<password> Set the cifs password, if not specified as part of the root.

Warning Passwords specified on the kernel command line are visible for all users via the file /proc/cmdline and via dmesg or can be sniffed on the network, when using DHCP with DHCP root-path.

iSCSI root=iscsi:[46]@][47]:[48]:[49][50]:[51]]:[52]:<targetname> protocol defaults to "6", LUN defaults to "0". If the "servername" field is provided by BOOTP or DHCP, then that field is used in conjunction with other associated fields to contact the boot server in the Boot stage. However, if the "servername" field is not provided, then the "targetname" field is then used in the Discovery Service stage in conjunction with other associated fields. See rfc4173[53].

Warning Passwords specified on the kernel command line are visible for all users via the file /proc/cmdline and via dmesg or can be sniffed on the network, when using DHCP with DHCP root-path.

Example.

root=iscsi:192.168.50.1::::iqn.2009-06.dracut:target0

If servername is an IPv6 address, it has to be put in brackets:

Example.

root=iscsi:[54]::::iqn.2009-06.dracut:target0

root=??? netroot=iscsi:[55]@][56]:[57]:[58][59]:[60]]:[61]:<targetname> ... multiple netroot options allow setting up multiple iscsi disks:

Example.

root=UUID=12424547 netroot=iscsi:192.168.50.1::::iqn.2009-06.dracut:target0 netroot=iscsi:192.168.50.1::::iqn.2009-06.dracut:target1

If servername is an IPv6 address, it has to be put in brackets:

Example.

netroot=iscsi:[62]::::iqn.2009-06.dracut:target0

Warning Passwords specified on the kernel command line are visible for all users via the file /proc/cmdline and via dmesg or can be sniffed on the network, when using DHCP with DHCP root-path. You may want to use rd.iscsi.firmware.

root=??? rd.iscsi.initiator=<initiator> rd.iscsi.target.name=<target name> rd.iscsi.target.ip=<target ip> rd.iscsi.target.port=<target port> rd.iscsi.target.group=<target group> rd.iscsi.username=<username> rd.iscsi.password=<password> rd.iscsi.in.username=<in username> rd.iscsi.in.password=<in password> manually specify all iscsistart parameter (see iscsistart --help)

Warning Passwords specified on the kernel command line are visible for all users via the file /proc/cmdline and via dmesg or can be sniffed on the network, when using DHCP with DHCP root-path. You may want to use rd.iscsi.firmware.

root=??? netroot=iscsi rd.iscsi.firmware=1 will read the iscsi parameter from the BIOS firmware

rd.iscsi.param=<param> <param> will be passed as "--param <param>" to iscsistart. This parameter can be specified multiple times.

Example.

"netroot=iscsi rd.iscsi.firmware=1 rd.iscsi.param=node.session.timeo.replacement_timeout=30"

will result in

iscsistart -b --param node.session.timeo.replacement_timeout=30

rd.iscsi.ibft rd.iscsi.ibft=1: Turn on iBFT autoconfiguration for the interfaces

rd.iscsi.waitnet=0: Turn off waiting for all interfaces to be up before trying to login to the iSCSI targets.

rd.iscsi.testroute=0: Turn off checking, if the route to the iSCSI target IP is possible before trying to login.

FCoE fcoe=<edd|interface|MAC>:{dcb|nodcb} Try to connect to a FCoE SAN through the NIC specified by <interface> or <MAC> or EDD settings. For the second argument, currently only nodcb is supported. This parameter can be specified multiple times.

Note letters in the MAC-address must be lowercase!

NBD root=??? netroot=nbd:<server>:<port/exportname>[63]]] mount nbd share from <server>.

NOTE: If "exportname" instead of "port" is given the standard port is used. Newer versions of nbd are only supported with "exportname".

root=dhcp with dhcp root-path=nbd:<server>:<port/exportname>[64]]] root=dhcp alone directs initrd to look at the DHCP root-path where NBD options can be specified. This syntax is only usable in cases where you are directly mounting the volume as the rootfs.

NOTE: If "exportname" instead of "port" is given the standard port is used. Newer versions of nbd are only supported with "exportname".

DASD rd.dasd=.... same syntax as the kernel module parameter (s390 only)

ZFCP rd.zfcp=<zfcp adaptor device bus ID>,<WWPN>,<FCPLUN> rd.zfcp can be specified multiple times on the kernel command line.

Example.

rd.zfcp=0.0.4000,0x5005076300C213e9,0x5022000000000000

rd.zfcp.conf=0 ignore zfcp.conf included in the initramfs

ZNET rd.znet=<nettype>,<subchannels>,<options> rd.znet can be specified multiple times on the kernel command line.

Example.

rd.znet=qeth,0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602,layer2=1,portname=foo rd.znet=ctc,0.0.0600,0.0.0601,protocol=bar

Booting live images Dracut offers multiple options for live booted images:

SquashFS with read-only filesystem image The system will boot with a read only filesystem from the SquashFS and apply a writable device-mapper snapshot over the read only filesystem. Using this method ensures a relatively fast boot and lower RAM usage. Users must be careful to avoid writing too many blocks to the snapshot volume. Once the blocks of the snapshot overlay are exhausted, the root filesystem becomes unusable and requires a reboot. A persistent overlay is marked Invalid, and requires a difficult recovery. Non-persistent overlays default to 512 MiB in RAM, but the size can be adjusted with the rd.live.overlay.size= kernel command line option.

The filesystem structure is expected to be:

squashfs.img | Squashfs from LiveCD .iso downloaded via network !(mount) /LiveOS |- ext3fs.img | Filesystem image to mount read-only !(mount) /bin | Live filesystem /boot | /dev | ... |

Dracut uses this method of live booting by default. No additional command line options are required other than root=live:<URL> to specify the location of your squashed filesystem.

· The compressed SquashFS image can be copied during boot to RAM at /run/initramfs/squashed.img by using the rd.live.ram=1 option.

· A device with a persistent overlay can be booted read only by using the rd.live.overlay.readonly option on the kernel command line. This will cause a temporary, writable overlay to be stacked over a read-only snapshot of the root filesystem.

Uncompressed live filesystem image When the live system was installed with the --skipcompress option of the livecd-iso-to-disk installation script for Live USB devices, the root filesystem image, ext3fs.img, is expanded on installation and no SquashFS is involved during boot.

· If rd.live.ram=1 is used in this situation, the full, uncompressed root filesystem is copied during boot to /run/initramfs/rootfs.img in the /run tmpfs.

· If rd.live.overlay=none is provided as a kernel command line option, a writable, linear device-mapper target is created on boot with no overlay.

writable filesystem image The system will retrieve a compressed filesystem image, extract it to /run/initramfs/fsimg/rootfs.img, connect it to a loop device, create a writable, linear device-mapper target at /dev/mapper/live-rw, and mount that as a writable volume at /. More RAM is required during boot but the live filesystem is easier to manage if it becomes full. Users can make a filesystem image of any size and that size will be maintained when the system boots. There is no persistence of root filesystem changes between boots with this option.

The filesystem structure is expected to be:

rootfs.tgz | Compressed tarball containing fileystem image !(unpack) /rootfs.img | Filesystem image at /run/initramfs/fsimg/ !(mount) /bin | Live filesystem /boot | /dev | ... |

To use this boot option, ensure that rd.writable.fsimg=1 is in your kernel command line and add the root=live:<URL> to specify the location of your compressed filesystem image tarball or SquashFS image.

rd.writable.fsimg=1 Enables writable filesystem support. The system will boot with a fully writable (but non-persistent) filesystem without snapshots (see notes above about available live boot options). You can use the rootflags option to set mount options for the live filesystem as well (see documentation about rootflags in the Standard section above). This implies that the whole image is copied to RAM before the boot continues.

Note There must be enough free RAM available to hold the complete image. This method is very suitable for diskless boots.

root=live:<url> Boots a live image retrieved from <url>. Valid handlers: http, https, ftp, torrent, tftp.

Example.

root=live:http://example.com/liveboot.img root=live:ftp://ftp.example.com/liveboot.img root=live:torrent://example.com/liveboot.img.torrent

rd.live.debug=1 Enables debug output from the live boot process.

rd.live.dir=<path> Specifies the directory within the squashfs where the ext3fs.img or rootfs.img can be found. By default, this is LiveOS.

rd.live.squashimg=<filename of SquashFS image> Specifies the filename for a SquashFS image of the root filesystem. By default, this is squashfs.img.

rd.live.ram=1 Copy the complete image to RAM and use this for booting. This is useful when the image resides on, i.e., a DVD which needs to be ejected later on.

rd.live.overlay=<devspec>:(<pathspec>|auto)|none Allow the usage of a permanent overlay.

· <devspec> specifies the path to a device with a mountable filesystem.

· <pathspec> is the path to a file within that filesystem, which shall be used to persist the changes made to the device specified by the root=live:<url> option.

· none specifies no overlay when an uncompressed live root filesystem is available.

Example.

rd.live.overlay=/dev/sdb1:persistent-overlay.img

rd.live.overlay.size=<size_MiB> Specifies a non-persistent overlay size in MiB. The default is 512.

rd.live.overlay.readonly=1 Specifies a non-persistent, writable snapshot overlay to be stacked over a read-only snapshot of the root filesystem, /dev/mapper/live-ro.

rd.live.overlay.reset=1 Specifies that a persistent overlay should be reset on boot. All root filesystem changes are vacated by this action.

rd.live.overlay.thin=1 Enables the usage of thin snapshots instead of classic dm snapshots. The advantage of thin snapshots is that they support discards, and will free blocks that are not claimed by the filesystem. In this use case, this means that memory is given back to the kernel when the filesystem does not claim it anymore.

Plymouth Boot Splash plymouth.enable=0 disable the plymouth bootsplash completely.

rd.plymouth=0 disable the plymouth bootsplash only for the initramfs.

Kernel keys masterkey=<kernel master key path name> Set the path name of the kernel master key.

Example.

masterkey=/etc/keys/kmk-trusted.blob

masterkeytype=<kernel master key type> Set the type of the kernel master key.

Example.

masterkeytype=trusted

evmkey=<EVM key path name> Set the path name of the EVM key.

Example.

evmkey=/etc/keys/evm-trusted.blob

ecryptfskey=<eCryptfs key path name> Set the path name of the eCryptfs key.

Example.

ecryptfskey=/etc/keys/ecryptfs-trusted.blob

Deprecated, renamed Options Here is a list of options, which were used in dracut prior to version 008, and their new replacement.

rdbreak rd.break

rd_CCW rd.ccw

rd_DASD_MOD rd.dasd

rd_DASD rd.dasd

rdinitdebug rdnetdebug rd.debug

rd_NO_DM rd.dm=0

rd_DM_UUID rd.dm.uuid

rdblacklist rd.driver.blacklist

rdinsmodpost rd.driver.post

rdloaddriver rd.driver.pre

rd_NO_FSTAB rd.fstab=0

rdinfo rd.info

check rd.live.check

rdlivedebug rd.live.debug

live_dir rd.live.dir

liveimg rd.live.image

overlay rd.live.overlay

readonly_overlay rd.live.overlay.readonly

reset_overlay rd.live.overlay.reset

live_ram rd.live.ram

rd_NO_CRYPTTAB rd.luks.crypttab=0

rd_LUKS_KEYDEV_UUID rd.luks.keydev.uuid

rd_LUKS_KEYPATH rd.luks.keypath

rd_NO_LUKS rd.luks=0

rd_LUKS_UUID rd.luks.uuid

rd_NO_LVMCONF rd.lvm.conf

rd_LVM_LV rd.lvm.lv

rd_NO_LVM rd.lvm=0

rd_LVM_SNAPSHOT rd.lvm.snapshot

rd_LVM_SNAPSIZE rd.lvm.snapsize

rd_LVM_VG rd.lvm.vg

rd_NO_MDADMCONF rd.md.conf=0

rd_NO_MDIMSM rd.md.imsm=0

rd_NO_MD rd.md=0

rd_MD_UUID rd.md.uuid

rd_NO_MULTIPATH: rd.multipath=0

rd_NFS_DOMAIN rd.nfs.domain

iscsi_initiator rd.iscsi.initiator

iscsi_target_name rd.iscsi.target.name

iscsi_target_ip rd.iscsi.target.ip

iscsi_target_port rd.iscsi.target.port

iscsi_target_group rd.iscsi.target.group

iscsi_username rd.iscsi.username

iscsi_password rd.iscsi.password

iscsi_in_username rd.iscsi.in.username

iscsi_in_password rd.iscsi.in.password

iscsi_firmware rd.iscsi.firmware=0

rd_NO_PLYMOUTH rd.plymouth=0

rd_retry rd.retry

rdshell rd.shell

rd_NO_SPLASH rd.splash

rdudevdebug rd.udev.debug

rdudevinfo rd.udev.info

rd_NO_ZFCPCONF rd.zfcp.conf=0

rd_ZFCP rd.zfcp

rd_ZNET rd.znet

KEYMAP vconsole.keymap

KEYTABLE vconsole.keymap

SYSFONT vconsole.font

CONTRANS vconsole.font.map

UNIMAP vconsole.font.unimap

UNICODE vconsole.unicode

EXT_KEYMAP vconsole.keymap.ext

Configuration in the Initramfs /etc/conf.d/ Any files found in /etc/conf.d/ will be sourced in the initramfs to set initial values. Command line options will override these values set in the configuration files.

/etc/cmdline Can contain additional command line options. Deprecated, better use /etc/cmdline.d/*.conf.

/etc/cmdline.d/*.conf Can contain additional command line options.

AUTHOR         top

       Harald Hoyer

SEE ALSO         top

       dracut(8) dracut.conf(5)

NOTES         top

        1. rfc4173
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4173#section-5

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the dracut (event driven initramfs
infrastructure) project.  Information about the project can be found
at ⟨https://dracut.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page⟩.  If you have
a bug report for this manual page, send it to
initramfs@vger.kernel.org.  This page was obtained from the project's
upstream Git repository
⟨git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/boot/dracut/dracut.git⟩ on 2016-05-09.
If you discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the
page, or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for
the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the information
in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original manual page),
send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

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